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Table 6 Average mean absolute errors and standard deviations (with unit of \(\frac{^\circ C}{km}\) for physics-based, XGBoost and DNN model predictions compared to the measured temperature data

From: Exploratory analysis of machine learning methods in predicting subsurface temperature and geothermal gradient of Northeastern United States

Model MAE
Physics 6.6
XGBoost 5.6
DNN 7.0