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Table 3 Time period of pipe installation, depth of pipe below surface, scale rates at the wellhead, produced water volume = Q, calcium ion concentration [\(\hbox {Ca}^{2+}\)] measured at the wellhead, and scale-related decrease of calcium ion concentration [%] in the production pipes and underlying casing

From: Hydrochemical and operational parameters driving carbonate scale kinetics at geothermal facilities in the Bavarian Molasse Basin

Site Time Pipe, m Rate wellhead, Q, [\(\hbox {Ca}^{2+}\)], \(\Delta\) [\(\hbox {Ca}^{2+}\)],
  Period   \(\mu\)mol/(\(\hbox {m}^2 \cdot\) s) Mio. \(\hbox {m}^3\) mmol/L %
10 07/2016 –03/2017 970– 0 1.7 2.0 0.25 1.71
9** 12/2014–03/2015 800–0 2.8 0.7 0.51 2.14
9 10/2016–03/2018 680–0 3.0 5.6 0.51 1.50
9 10/2012 - 03/2018 980–680 2.5 16.2 0.51 0.80
8* 10/2012–03/2013 860–0 2.4 0.6 0.42 3.40
8* 08/2013–12/2013 860–0 3.2 0.7 0.42 1.50
8* 12/2013–09/2014 860–0 2.4 1.9 0.42 2.50
7 15/2015–02/2017 520–0 1.6 1.7 0.59 1.25
17 11/2016–10/2017 670–0 3.8 4.1 0.85 1.68
6 12/2013–11/2016 880–0 1.9 3.0 0.93 0.72
6 12/2015–06/2017 880–0 1.9 4.9 0.93 0.69
6 08/2010–12/2015 1800–850 1.0 16.9 0.93 1.10
  1. Calculations marked with * and ** are based on gauge measurements of Herbrich (2016), respectively Wanner et al. (2017)