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Table 1 CO2 storage form under each scenario

From: The potential of coupled carbon storage and geothermal extraction in a CO2-enhanced geothermal system: a review

Scenario Production object Storage form Mineral reactions (without stoichiometry)
Unmineable coal seams None (a), (e) None
Saline aquifers None (a), (b), (c), (d) Caprock
\(\left\{ \begin{array}{ll} {\text{CaSO}}_{ 4} ({\text{anhydrite}}) \leftrightarrow {\text{Ca}}^{2 + } + {\text{SO}}_{ 4}^{2 - } \hfill \\ {\text{Ca}}^{2 + } + {\text{CO}}_{ 3}^{2 - } \leftrightarrow {\text{CaCO}}_{ 3} \hfill \\ {\text{illite}} + {\text{H}}^{ + } + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \leftrightarrow {\text{kaolinite}} + {\text{K}}^{ + } + {\text{Mg}}^{ 2+ } + {\text{Si}}({\text{OH}})_{4} \hfill \\ {\text{kaolinite}} + {\text{Ca}}^{2 + } + {\text{Si}}({\text{OH}})_{4} \to ({\text{Ca - smectite)}} + {\text{H}}^{ + } + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \hfill \\ {\text{illite}} + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} + {\text{CO}}_{ 2} \to {\text{muscovite}} + {\text{kaolinite}} + {\text{SiO}}_{ 2} + {\text{MgCO}}_{ 3} \hfill \\ \end{array} \right.\)
(Tian et al. 2014)
Reservoir
\(\left\{ \begin{array}{ll} {\text{CO}}_{ 2} + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \leftrightarrow {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{CO}}_{ 3} \leftrightarrow {\text{H}}^{ + } + {\text{HCO}}_{ 3}^{ - } \leftrightarrow 2{\text{H}}^{ + } + {\text{CO}}_{ 3}^{2 - } \hfill \\ ( {\text{K - feldspar)}} + {\text{H}}^{ + } + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \to {\text{kaolinite}} + {\text{K}}^{ + } + {\text{Si}}({\text{OH}})_{4} \hfill \\ {\text{plagioclase}} + ({\text{K - feldspar)}} + {\text{Mg}}^{2 + } + {\text{Fe}}^{2 + } + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} + {\text{CO}}_{ 2} \to \hfill \\ {\text{kaolinitet}} + ({\text{illite - smectite)}} + {\text{dolomite}} + {\text{SiO}}_{ 2} + {\text{Na}}^{ + } + {\text{K}}^{ + } \hfill \\ + {\text{HCO}}_{ 3}^{ - } \hfill \\ {\text{calcite}} + {\text{CO}}_{ 2} + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \leftrightarrow {\text{Ca}}^{ 2+ } + {\text{H}}^{ + } + {\text{CO}}_{ 3}^{{ 2 { - }}} \hfill \\ \end{array} \right.\)(Kampman et al. 2014; Wdowin et al. 2014)
Depleted oil/gas reservoirs None (a), (c), (d) \(\left\{ \begin{aligned} {\text{albite}} + {\text{CO}}_{ 2} + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \to {\text{dawsonite}} + {\text{SiO}}_{ 2} \hfill \\ ({\text{K - feldspar)}} + {\text{H}}^{ + } + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \to {\text{kaolinite}} + {\text{K}}^{ + } + {\text{Si}}({\text{OH}})_{4} \hfill \\ {\text{CO}}_{ 2} + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \leftrightarrow {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{CO}}_{ 3} \leftrightarrow {\text{H}}^{ + } + {\text{HCO}}_{ 3}^{ - } \leftrightarrow 2{\text{H}}^{ + } + {\text{CO}}_{ 3}^{2 - } \hfill \\ \end{aligned} \right.\)
(Yu et al. 2012)
Submarine sediment layer None
Basalt formation None (c), (d) \(\left\{ \begin{array}{ll} {\text{diopside}} + {\text{H}}^{ + } \to {\text{Ca}}^{2 + } + {\text{Mg}}^{2 + } + {\text{SiO}}_{ 2} + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \hfill \\ {\text{hedenbergite}} + {\text{H}}^{ + } \to {\text{Ca}}^{2 + } + {\text{Fe}}^{2 + } + {\text{SiO}}_{ 2} + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \hfill \\ {\text{greenalite}} + {\text{H}}^{ + } \to {\text{Fe}}^{2 + } + {\text{SiO}}_{ 2} + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \hfill \\ {\text{antigorite}} + {\text{H}}^{ + } \to {\text{Mg}}^{2 + } + {\text{SiO}}_{ 2} + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \hfill \\ {\text{forsterite}} + {\text{H}}^{ + } \to {\text{Mg}}^{2 + } + {\text{SiO}}_{ 2} + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \hfill \\ {\text{fayalite}} + {\text{H}}^{ + } \to {\text{Fe}}^{2 + } + {\text{SiO}}_{ 2} + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \hfill \\ {\text{M}}^{ 2+ } + {\text{CO}}_{ 3}^{2 - } \to {\text{MCO}}_{ 3} \hfill \\ \end{array} \right.\)(Liu et al. 2019)
CO2-ECBM CH4 (b), (e) None
CO2-EOR Oil (a), (b) \(\left\{ \begin{array}{ll} ({\text{K - feldspar)}} + {\text{H}}^{ + } + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \to {\text{kaolinite}} + {\text{K}}^{ + } + {\text{Si}}({\text{OH}})_{4} \hfill \\ {\text{albite}} + {\text{H}}^{ + } + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \to {\text{kaolinite}} + {\text{Na}}^{ + } + {\text{Si}}({\text{OH}})_{4} \hfill \\ {\text{anorthite}} + {\text{CO}}_{ 2} + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \to {\text{calcite}} + {\text{kaolinite}} \hfill \\ \end{array} \right.\)
(Yu et al. 2016; Zhang et al. 2017)
CO2-EGR CH4 (b), (c), (d)
CO2-EGS Heat energy (c), (d) \(\left\{ \begin{array}{ll} {\text{CO}}_{ 2} + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \leftrightarrow {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{CO}}_{ 3} \leftrightarrow {\text{H}}^{ + } + {\text{HCO}}_{ 3}^{ - } \leftrightarrow 2{\text{H}}^{ + } + {\text{CO}}_{ 3}^{2 - } \hfill \\ ( {\text{K - feldspar)}} + {\text{H}}^{ + } + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \to {\text{kaolinite}} + {\text{K}}^{ + } + {\text{Si}}({\text{OH}})_{4} \hfill \\ {\text{anorthite}} + {\text{H}}^{ + } + {\text{HCO}}_{ 3}^{ - } + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \to {\text{kaolinite}} + {\text{calcite}} \hfill \\ {\text{albite}} + {\text{H}}^{ + } + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \to {\text{kaolinite}} + {\text{Na}}^{ + } + {\text{Si}}({\text{OH}})_{4} \hfill \\ {\text{calcite}} + {\text{CO}}_{ 2} + {\text{H}}_{ 2} {\text{O}} \leftrightarrow {\text{Ca}}^{ 2+ } + {\text{H}}^{ + } + {\text{CO}}_{ 3}^{{ 2 { - }}} \hfill \\ \end{array} \right.\)
(Na et al. 2015; Xu 2008)
  1. (a) structural trapping, (b) residual trapping, (c) solubility trapping, (d) mineral trapping, (e) adsorption trapping