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Table 9 Summary of the estimated average capital and current costs and energy consumption of the ATES system and the reference technology

From: Techno-economic and environmental analysis of an Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) in Germany

  ATES system Reference technology
ATES heating ATES cooling Compression chillers District heating
Capital costs (k€) 1259 607 60
Electricity consumption (MWh) 930 164 823
District heating consumption (MWh) 3758
Electricity costs (k€) 153 27 136
District heating costs (k€) 332
Maintenance (k€) 50 24 0.6
Replacements (k€) 8.5 33.0