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Table 5 Input parameters to calculate the current costs of the ATES system

From: Techno-economic and environmental analysis of an Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) in Germany

Parameter Minimum Mode Maximum
COP heat pump COP a, bHP 4 4.5 5
Electricity costs EC (ct/kWh)c 16 16.5 17
Maintenance MATES (%)d 4
Replacement RATES   Table 2  
Heating period tH (h)   2043  
Cooling period tC (h)   1558  
  1. a Boissavy (2015), b International Energy Agency (2007), c Stindl (2017, personal communication) d Sommer et al. (2015)