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Table 1 Results of the estimation of the geothermal potential for the vGSHP system with a COP = 4 for Scenarios 2 to 5 and the heat supply rate S before and after refurbishment with a fixed BHE spacing

From: Meeting the demand: geothermal heat supply rates for an urban quarter in Germany

Scenario Fixed BHE spacing d = 10 m Inverse analysis
E (GWh) S (%) BHE spacing (m) Number of BHE
Before After Before After Before After
2: RDD 2.3 22 47 4.5 6.5 4675 2242
3: RDD + GW 3.4 34 71 5.5 8 3121 1473
4: no RDD 13.3 131 277 11 16 783 377
5: no RDD + GW 15.4 152 322 12 17.5 657 302
  1. Results of the inverse analysis: the minimum BHE spacing and number of BHEs for which a heat supply rate of at least 100% before or after refurbishment can be achieved. The four scenarios consider variable heat extraction rates q depending on groundwater flow (GW) and two different BHE lengths (17 m and 100 m) corresponding to the restriction of the drilling depth (RDD, no RDD)