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Table 1 Casing programs of geothermal wells where temperatures above critical point of pure water have been encountered

From: Review of failure modes in supercritical geothermal drilling projects

Country Well Year Depth, m Temp.,  °C Press., bar Depth measured, m Measuring method Failure mode Casing program Reference
Surface Intermediate Anchor Production Liner pipe
Italy Sasso-22 1980 4094 380 n/n 3970 Wire-line logs High well temperatures 24″ 18 5/8″ @400 m 13 3/8″ @1400 m 9 5/8″ @2900 m Bertini et al. (1980)
San Pompeo-2 1979 2996 395 > 240 2560 n/n Blow-out n/n n/n n/n n/n n/n Barbier (1984)
San Vito-1 1980 3045 419 n/n 2500 Zinc sheet Wellhead not rated for supercritical conditions 20″, J55, BTC @147 m 13 3/8″, J55, BTC @1009 m 9 5/8″, C75, Hydril @2025 m Liner 7″, J55, BTC @1897–2487 m (liner) 6″, J55 @2382–3045 m (slotted liner) Baron and Ungemach (1980)
Venelle-2 2017 2900 > 500 n/n 2810 Wire-line Kuster KTG tool (and 444 °C with SINTEF PT tool, 480–610 °C at 2894 m with thermosensitive paints) Blow-out; cementing equipment failure 18 5/8″, J55, Tenaris ER, 133 lb/ft @182 m 13 3/8″, L80 (13%Cr), Tenaris ER, 68 lb.ft @1029 m Liner 9 5/8″, L80, TSH ER, 44 lb/ft @1000–2300 m Liner 7″, T95, TSH Blue, 29 lb/ft @2250–2800 m Bertani et al. (2018)
9 5/8″, L80, TSH ER, 44 lb/ft @1000 m (tie-back) Liner 7″, TN125SS, TSH Blue, 32 lb/ft @1100–2250 m Open hole @3000–3500 m
Tie-back 7″, TN125SS, 32 lb/ft, TSH Blue @1100 m
Carboli-11 1990 3455 427 n/n 3328 Melting alloy n/n n/n n/n n/n n/n n/n Ruggieri and Gianelli (1995)
Iceland NJ-11 1985 2265 >380 >220 1900 (tool deflection) Wire-line with 44 l/s of cold water pumped into annulus Underground blow-out 18 5/8″ @54 m 13 3/8″, 61, 68 lb/ft, K55 @183 m 9 5/8″, 43 lb/ft, K55, BTC @566 m 7″ 24 lb/ft, K55, BTC @561–1617 m Steingrimsson et al. (1986)
IDDP-1 2008 2104 450 142 At wellhead during well discharge Wellhead valve failure, casing rupture due to well quenching, corrosion and precipitation 32 ½”, X56, welded, @87 m 24 ½” 162 lb/ft, K55, welded, @254 m 13 5/8″, 88 lb/ft, T95, Hydril 563 @290 m 9 5/8″, 54 lb/ft, K55, Hydril @563–1935 m (sacrificial) 9 5/8″, 47 lb/ft, K55, BTC @1935–2072 m (part of production casing) Þórhallsson et al. (2010), (2014)
18 5/8″, 114 lb/ft, K55, BTC @785 m 13 3/8″, 72 lb/ft, K55, Hydril 563 @290–1949 m
IDDP-2 2016 4659 427 340 4560 Wire-line logs; 6 days after drilling with 40 l/s fluid pumping Casing damage 22 ½”, 117 lb/ft, X56, welded @87 m 18 5/8″, X56, welded @293 m 9 7/8″, 63 lb/ft, T95, GEOCONN @535 m 7″, 26 lb/ft, TN 80HS, Hydril @1303 m (sacrificial) 7″, 26 lb/ft, L80, BTC @2941–4572 m Ingason et al. (2015), Friðleifsson and Elders (2017), Friðleifsson et al. (2017)
13 3/8″, 68 lb/ft, K55, BTC @794 m 9 5/8″, 47 lb/ft, L80, GEOCONN @535–2941 m
KJ-39 2008 2858 386 230 2822 Wire-line shortly after drilling within stuck drill string Well construction not rated for supercritical condition; in operation as an injection well 18 5/8″ @74 m 13 5/8″, K55, BTC @282 m 9 5/8″ @967 m 7″, K55, BTC @2608 m Mortensen et al. (2010)
Japan WD-1A 1994 3729 500 n/n > 3500 Melting points of pure tellurium metal Safety concerns due to H2S and CO2 ejection 18 5/8″, @600 m 13 3/8″, @1500 m 9 5/8″ @1363–2546 m Open hole Saito et al. (1998)
USA Wilson No 1 1981 3672 400 489 2980, 3350 Fluid inclusions Casing collapse 20″, 94 lb/ft, H40, seamless, Vetco @50 m 13 3/8″ K-55. 68 and 55 lb/ft, K-55, BTC, @894 m 9 5/8″, 40, 44, 47, 54 lb/ft L80 and K-55 @2804 m Open hole DOGGR online well records (1982), Fournier (1991)
Prati-32 2010 3396 400 n/n 3352 From steam entry In operation as injection well 22″ @98 m 16 1/8″ @912 m 11 3/4″ @1863 m 8 5/8″ (liner) @2591–3048 m 7″ @3048–3388 m with 5″ (blank liner) @2590 m Garcia et al. (2016)
IID-14 1990 2073 390 207 2073 Wire-line logs n/n 16″ @114 m 9 5/8″ @302 m 7″ @789 m DOGGR online well records (1990)
KS-13 2005 2488 1050 n/n 2844 Dacite magma temperature In operation as injection well 20″ 94 lb/ft, K55, BTC @305 m 13 3/8″, 61 lb/ft, K55, VAM @610 9 5/8″, 47 lb/ft, C-90, VAM @1189 m 7″, 29 lb/ft, L80, BTC @1159 m Teplow et al. (2009), Spielman et al. (2006)
Mexico H-43 2007 2200 395 113 2200 Wire-line during heating-up Precipitation and erosion 20″ K-55 94 lb/ft, BTC @47 m 13 3/8″ K-55 54.5 lb/ft, BTC @501 m 9 5/8″ L-80 47 lb/ft, BTC @1245 m Open hole Diez et al. (2015)
Kenya MW-01 2011 2206 391 n/n n/n n/n n/n 20″ @81 m 13 3/8″ @400 m 9 5/8″ @840 m 7″ @2206 m (slotted liner) Okwiri and Cherutisch (2013), Khaemba (2016), Mbia (2014), Kipyego et al. (2013)
MW-03 2011 2106 ~400 n/n n/n n/n n/n    @1096 m @2070 m Mbia (2014)
MW-04 2011 2118 390 140 During flow testing n/n 20″, 94 lb/ft, @81 m 13 3/8″, 55 lb/ft @401 m 9 5/8″, 47 lb/ft @1106 m 7″, 26 lb/ft @2097 m Mbia (2014), Kipyego et al. (2013)
MW-06 (MW-05) 2011 2203 325 n/n n/n n/n n/n 20″ @80 m 13 3/8″, 55 lb/ft, 68 lb/ft @409 m 9 5/8 @1001 m 7″, 26 lb/ft @2171 m Mbia (2014), Mibei (2012), Kipyego et al. (2013)
Greece Nisyros-1 1982 1816 > 400 n/n Wellhead using wax strips Casing collapse 18 5/8″ H40 @111 m 13 3/8″ J55, 55 lb/ft BTR @414 m 9 5/8″ J55, 40 lb/ft, BTR @1342 m 7″ J55, API, 23 lb/ft @1267–1811 m (slotted liner) Geotermica Italiana (1983, 1984)