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Table 4 Chemistry of waters sampled at Fang Hot Springs

From: Geologic framework of the Fang Hot Springs area with emphasis on structure, hydrology, and geothermal development, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand

CODE Sample date pH Temp  °C Cond. µS cm−1 TDS mg l−1 CO3 mg L−1 HCO3 mg l−1 Cl mg l−1 SO4 mg l−1 F mg l H2S mg l−1 NO3 mg l−1 SiO2 mg l−1
CM 3-C 1987 9.45 96   513    27.5 44 21.5    180
FANG-1 1987 9 99   510    18 23     176
Well FTGE-3 1987 8.9 98.5   499    17 19     169
Well FTGE-5 1987   99   519    18.4      180
F MINE 1987   40   342    3.63 97     50.6
Well FX-2 9-5-2011 9.17   550 440   100 9.2 16 20   < 1.0 170
Well FTGE-15 9-5-2011   130.4     110 8.8 22 19   < 1.0 170
well FTGE-14 9-5-2011 9.25   550 440   91 8.9 17 20   < 1.0 170
CM-03-8 well FTGE-14 2-2014 8.95 98.0 507 436 60.0 185.5 15.2 8.8 17.5 20 < 0.02 121.6
CM-03-2 east seep 2-2014   79.1 501 431 0.0 282.5 19 21.5 15.5 0.3 < 0.02 102.7
CM-03-3 main seep 2-2014 9.20 88.5 896 513 48.0 190.5 13.3 16.2 20.5 13 < 0.02 121.9
CM-03-4 main seep 2-2014 8.50 96.7 501 413 6.0 265.5 11.4 13.2 21.8 14 < 0.02 113.3
CM-03-5 main seep 2-2014 9.02 98.3 513 435 78.0 150.5 7.6 18.0 19.5 15 < 0.02 123.6
CM-03-6 main seep 2-2014 8.95 97.5 503 428 42.0 220.5 5.7 15.6 19.5 0.3 < 0.02 119.9
CM-03-7 main seep 2-2014 9.98 81.8 512 431 24.0 210.5 26.6 38.6 18.5 0.2 < 0.02 123.1
CM-03-9 generator outflow 2-2014 8.87 71.0 495 404 60.0 180.5 20.9 6.7 10.5 8.5 < 0.02 117.6
CM-03-10 cooling pond 2-2014 7.26 37.0 127 83 0.0 61.0 7.6 6.6 1.8 < 0.2 < 0.02 27.3
CM-03-1 north pond 2-2014 8.22 59.1 493 397 0.0 290.5 20.9 23.5 9.5 0.5 < 0.02 114.1
CODE Sample date NH4 mg l−1 Na mg l−1 K mg l−1 Li mg l−1 Ca mg l−1 Mg mg l−1 Fe mg l−1 Mn mg l−1 Zn mg l−1 Cu mg l−1 Cd mg l−1 Pb mg l−1 Al µg l−1 As µg l−1
CM 3-C 1987   128 9.1   1.5 0.04 0.1        
FANG-1 1987   120 8.7   1.4 0.05 0.277        
Well FTGE-3 1987   120 8.8   1.9 0.1 0.35        
Well FTGE-5 1987   126 9   1.2 0.07 0.038        
F MINE 1987   54.3 8.6   28 13.6 0.25        
Well FX-2 9-5-2011 0.10 120 8.4 0.49 1.1 < 0.5 0.14 < 0.005 0.23 < 0.05 < 0.001 < 0.050 320 < 50
Well FTGE-15 9-5-2011 0.13 120 8.6 0.48 1.7 < 0.5 0.26 0.015 7.00 < 0.05 < 0.001 < 0.01 550 < 50
well FTGE-14 9-5-2011 0.09 110 8.2 0.48 1.5 < 0.5 0.34 < 0.005 0.31 < 0.05 < 0.001   280 < 50
CM-03-8 well FTGE-14 2-2014   137.7 7.8 0.53 2.3 0.002 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.002 < 0.005 233.0 <  5.0
CM-03-2 east seep 2-2014   136.9 7.9 0.54 5.4 0.041 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.002 < 0.005 164.4 10.4
CM-03-3 main seep 2-2014   140.7 8.1 0.52 2.0 0.012 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.002 < 0.005 173.1 <  5.0
CM-03-4 main seep 2-2014   136.4 8.1 0.51 3.1 0.004 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.002 < 0.005 98.7 <  5.0
CM-03-5 main seep 2-2014   138.5 7.6 0.55 1.8 0.028 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.002 < 0.005 184.3 7.3
CM-03-6 main seep 2-2014   137.1 8.1 0.51 3.0 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.002 < 0.005 179.8 <  5.0
CM-03-7 main seep 2-2014   140.0 9.4 0.54 2.4 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.002 < 0.005 228.5 <  5.0
CM-03-9 generator outflow 2-2014   136.2 8.1 0.52 2.3 0.002 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.002 < 0.005 225.6 <  5.0
CM-03-10 cooling pond 2-2014   30.1 3.0 0.06 8.9 1.223 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.002 < 0.005 27.2 12.4
CM-03-1 north pond 2-2014   133.7 9.1 0.53 6.1 0.076 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.005 < 0.002 < 0.005 35.9 6.3
CODE Sample date Alkalinity mg l−1 CaCO3 Hardness mg l−1 CaCO3 %error Cat An−1 balance Source
CM 3-C 1987 237    1a
FANG-1 1987 245    1a
Well FTGE-3 1987 247    1a
well FTGE-5 1987 255    1a
F MINE 1987     1a
Well FX-2 9-5-2011     2b
Well FTGE-15 9-5-2011     2b
Well FTGE-14 9-5-2011     2b
CM-03-8 well FTGE-14 2-2014 272 25.8 − 1.6 3c
CM-03-2 east seep 2-2014 232 31.2 − 3.2 3c
CM-03-3 main seep 2-2014 252 29.9 − 3.6 3c
CM-03-4 main seep 2-2014 230 24.7 − 3.2 3c
CM-03-5 main seep 2-2014 279 31.7 − 1.8 3c
CM-03-6 main seep 2-2014 265 29.7 − 2.3 3c
CM-03-7 main seep 2-2014 221 31.5 − 1.9 3c
CM-03-9 generator outflow 2-2014 268 25.4 − 3.7 3c
CM-03-10 cooling pond 2-2014 50 3.4 − 0.5 3c
CM-03-1 north pond 2-2014 238 30.5 − 3.0 3c
  1. 1Hirukawa et al. (1987)
  2. 2Lara Owens, Ormat Corp. written communication
  3. 3This study: analysis by the Office of Primary Industries and Mines, Region 3, Chiang Mai, using ICP, except F and Cl by ion selective electrode